MCQs in Bacterial Genetics (Part II) Category: Bacteriology. In this type, the bacteriophage first infects the donor cells and begins the lytic cycle. This process was first reported in Streptococcus pneumonia by Griffith. The correct term for the transfer of genetic material between bacteria in direct physical contact is. Transduction; Transduction is the transfer of genetic information from a donor to a recipient by way of a bacteriophage. Transduction occurs when a bacterial virus, called a bacteriophage, detaches from one bacterial cell, carrying with it some of that bacterium’s genome, and then infects another cell. Conjugation, transformation and transduction are all mechanisms to transfer DNA from a donor call to a recipient cell through the process of vertical gene transfer. Conjugation is carried out in several steps: 1. Transformation involves the exchange of naked DNA between donor and recipient in the absence of cell-to cell contact. Introduction of DNA molecules into the recipient organism is termed as _____ a) transformation b) translation c) transduction d) transcription View Answer Due to this, the phage genome sometimes carries the bacterial genome with it and integrates it into the genome of the recipient cell. The cells that survive and grow are transformed cells. Promote conjugation among bacteria C. Allow resistant strains to propagate preferen-tially D. All of the above 6 The most important mechanism of concurrent acquisition of multidrug resistance among bacteria is: A. Mutation B. Conjugation C. Transduction D. Transformation This set of Microbiology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Bacterial Conjugation”. MCQs on Transduction For NEET Viruses are used to transfer genetic information from one to another bacterium through the process of transduction. Transduction is the process of transfer of genes from the recipient to the donor through bacteriophage. C) transfers DNA vertically, to new cells. The donor and the recipient strand both contain a single strand of the F-plasmid. a) transfection. Conjugation requires cell-to-cell contact between the donor and receipient cells. Mutations. Transformation is the process of DNA uptake by the bacteria from the surrounding environment. a) Cell elongation. The F-factor opens at the origin of replication. The others are non-transformed. This method was proposed by Lederberg and Tatum. Your email address will not be published. There are various conjugal plasmids carried by various bacterial species. The virus genome is induced in the host cell genome. 1. The cells that have the ability to uptake DNA are known as competent cells. The virus enters the bacteria and integrates its genome within the host cell DNA. All of the following are ways that prokaryotes can exchange genetic material except A. vertical gene transfer. B) replicates DNA. 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In addition transformation is widely used in recombinant DNA technology. Thus, a complementary strand is synthesized in both the recipient and the donor. Bacteriophages in the form of viruses are capable of infecting bacterial cells and hence, utilize them as hosts to produce more viruses. The pilus forms a conjugation tube and enables direct contact between the donor and the recipient cells. Also Read: Difference between Virus and Bacteria. c) DNA duplication. Your email address will not be published. In this, only a few restricted bacteria are transferred from donor to recipient bacteria. Transformation: is the uptake of DNA fragments (originates from one bacterial cell) from the surroundings by a bacterial cell. 29. This is the virulence of viruses producing bacterial cell after infection if a specialized transducing virus attacks a healthy bacterial cell, (b) Equal virulence seen as the original one, (c) More virulence than the original one observed, 8. Prokaryotic cells like bacteria don't undergo mitosis like eukaryotic cells do. Start quiz Mutagens and carcinogens. This method was proposed by Lederberg and Tatum. Share this question with your friends. In transformation and transduction, where naked DNA is gaining access to the cell, the DNA could easily be broken down by the cell with no genetic expression occurring. transformation transcription transduction RNA replication The process by which protein is made from an RNA template is called which of the following. The first demonstration of recombination in bacteria was achieved by _____ a) Lederberg and Tatum b) Luria and Delbruck c) Joshua and Lederberg d) Luria and Tatum View Answer They discovered that the F-factor can move between E.colicells and proposed the concept of conjugation. C. conjugation. Conjugation is carried out in several steps: Bacterial conjugation involves the following steps: The donor cells (F+ cells) form a sex pilus and begin contact with an F- recipient cell. The phage coat protects the DNA in the environment so that transduction, unlike transformation, is not affected by nucleases in the environment. Transformation Transduction O Conjugation None of these answers is true. Not all bacteria are capable of taking up DNA from the surrounding environment. Conjugation is one the three mechanism of DNA exchange between bacteria, the other being transformation and transduction. The effects of mutations. Transduction, transformation, conjugation, transposable elements. 28. Bacterial genetics section will test your understanding regarding Bacteriophage, Plasmids, Transposons, Bacterial gene transfer (Conjugation, Transformation and Transduction) and Recombinant DNA Technology. Required fields are marked *. Once multiplication is carried out, the viruses gather and eliminate a part of the host cell’s bacterial DNA. b) … E.coli grown in minimal medium; contains water, organic carbon, salts; NO amino acids Mating pair formation 2. Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation A) copies RNA to make DNA. Answer: A. There are numerous bacteria found on planet earth. Explanation are given for understanding. genetic recombination strategies of bacteria CONJUGATION, TRANSDUCTION AND TRANSFORMATION. In conjugation, the genes are located on a plasmid, under the control of promoters on the plasmid. The ability of cells to uptake DNA fragments from the surroundings is known as, 6. DNA t… This set of Genetic Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Transformation”. Example Question #1 : Help With Transduction, Conjugation, And Transformation The Frederick Griffith experiment showed that previously safe pneumococcus can become lethal when it incorporates DNA from the surroundings into its genome. However, DNA transformation is sensitive to DNase treatment. D) transfers DNA horizontally, to cells in the same generation. E. exchange of R plasmids. They divide quickly by binary fission producing identical daughter cells. One strand is cut at the origin of replication, and the 5’ end enters the recipient cell. For more information on bacterial genetics, bacterial conjugation, bacterial transduction, and bacterial transformation, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference. Comprehend transformation, conjugation and transduction Distinguish the difference between generalized and specialized transduction Review the history of transduction This is achieved by using chemicals and electrical pulses. Instead, they go through three types of gene transfer: transformation, conjugation and transduction. The recipient cell now contains a copy of F plasmid and becomes a donor cell. 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Answer: A. Viruses are used to transfer genetic information from one to another bacterium through the process of transduction. Transduction was discovered by Zinder and Lederberg in 1952 (217, 218) during a search for genetic recombination in salmonellae. SECTION D • Gene Transfer: Transduction Generalized Transduction MILLICENT MASTERS 130 INTRODUCTION Genetic transduction is the transfer, from one cell to another, of nonviral genetic material within a viral coat. Other articles where Conjugation is discussed: antibiotic resistance: Mechanisms of resistance: are transduction and conjugation. Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell’s genome. B. The mutations are transferred from one bacteria to another through horizontal transmission. Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria : Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation Gene transfer in bacteria can be broadly divided into- Vertical gene transfer (transmission of genes from parents to offspring during cell division) (A) Transformation (B) Conjugation (C) Transduction (D) Transcription (E) Recombination (F) Translation Posted one year ago Which of the recombination process (transformation, conjugation, and transduction) would be most l…. Thus, the genetic information is transferred from the mother to the offspring and is known as vertical transmission. E. syngamy. This is the role undertaken by bacteriophage in transduction, 4. True sexual reproduction is absent in bacteria, but there occurs of two bacterial cells, i.e., transformation, transduction, conjugation. The ability of cells to take up DNA fragments from surrounding is called. General transduction C. Abortive transduction D. None of these. Email. In all cases, the recipient will become a partial diploid, thus allowing for genetic recombination to occur. A specialized transducing phage that attacks an infected cell with lysogenic stage of the same virus produces, 3. Figure: Bacterial Conjugation. This is carried out by temperate bacteriophage which undergoes the lysogenic cycle. It remains dormant and passes on from generation to generation. Here, only the restricted genome has the possibility of entering into the recipient cells. There are three different types of horizontal transmission for the transfer of genetic information. Later this gets integrated into the bacterial genome. 1) Transformation • uptake and retention of external DNA molecules 2) Conjugation • direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another 3) Transduction • the transfer of DNA between bacteria by a virus Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids. Read more; Transduction: gene transfer in bacteria mediated by viruses (virus mediated gene transfer). Only the bacteria containing the antibiotic resistance gene will grow in the presence of antibiotic. b) Cytokinesis. Bacteriophages in the form of viruses are capable of infecting bacterial cells and hence, utilize them as hosts to produce more viruses. Binary fission in bacteria involves all. Question No : 11 Some of the most important difference between Transformation and Conjugation are :- It is a process of genetic recombination in bacteria where DNA fragments are taken up by bacterial cells from external medium whereas It is also a process of genetic recombination in bacteria, where two cells conjugate and a segment of DNA transfers from one another. An introduction to genetic mutations. Conjugation is the technique of transfer of genetic material from one bacteria to another placed in contact. This is incorrect regarding specialized transduction, (a) observed in lambda phages such as K12, (b) viral genome is incorporated in the bacterial genome, (c) variety of genes can be transformed in this case, (d) lysogenic viruses are capable of performing this. Specialized transduction B. These were some MCQs on Transduction for NEET. D. binary fission. This process involves transferring naked DNA fragments between bacteria, 7. B. conjugation. 29. 1. The key difference between transformation and transduction is that transformation is a mechanism which alters the genetic material of bacteria by direct uptake of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane and incorporation of it into the genome while transduction is the injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium. Conjugation occurs between two living cells, involves cell to cell contact, and requires mobilization of either a plasmid or a chromosome of donor bacterial cells.. Bacterial conjugation and transfer of F plasmid Mutation as a source of variation. Conjugal DNA synthesis 3. In transduction, viruses grab pieces of bacterial DNA from one host cell and deposit it in the next cell they bind to. Solve some important questions on transduction for NEET. 1. Bacteria undergoes recombination in all the three methods of conjugation , transformation and transduction. translation transformation transcription transduction RNA replication Plasmids carry genetic information coding for enzymes that are associated with all the following except _____. E) transcribes DNA to RNA. Broad-host-range conjugative plasmids have been used in molecular biology to introduce recombinant genes into bacterial species that are refractory to routine transformation or transduction methods. They discovered that the F-factor can move between E.coli cells and proposed the concept of conjugation. Among the following terms, which one is not a mode of horizontal gene transfer? HelloCustomer/p> Please find the answer below: Similarity: All the three methods are similar as it consists of transfer of genetic material by bacteria by means of recombination Bacteria undergoes recombination by taking an extra DNA from other sources. D. transformation. The bacteria are grown on an agar medium with antibiotics to check for transformed cells. Biological Classification MCQ with detailed explanation for interview, entrance and competitive exams. A. Such bacteria are made artificially competent. Some prokaryotes attach to other substrates by hairlike outgrowths, which are shorter than flagella. Learn more on NEET, at BYJU’S. Although numerous examples of conjugative plasmids exist, conjugation involving the F plasmid is the most common. except. It is ___________ when the phage tranduces those bacterial genes only which are adjoining to the prophage in the bacterial chromosome, 9. Transduction does not require physical contact between the cell donating the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA (which occurs in conjugation), and it is DNAase resistant (transformation is susceptible to DNAase). This process does not require cell-to-cell contact and is resistant to DNase. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. a. could occur in transformation c. could occur in conjugation b. could occur in transduction d. all the above 4 To demonstrate transformation in the lab, you would need a. donor DNA and recipient cells b. recipient DNA and DNA ligase c. male and female cells d. any of the above is correct 5 Transduction … C. transduction. The host cell DNA is hydrolyzed into small fragments by the viral enzymes. There are various conjugal plasmids carried by various bacterial species. A. conjugation B. transformation C. replication D. transduction. There are two kinds of transduction – specialized and generalized. 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