Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet,", W.L. [30], The most popular religion in the U.S. is Christianity, comprising the majority of the population (73.7% of adults in 2016). Cambridge Core - American History: General Interest - The Cambridge History of Religions in America Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The early 20th century was characterized by a continuation of tendencies that had their roots in the 19th century. [118], In the United States, Enlightenment philosophy (which itself was heavily inspired by deist ideals) played a major role in creating the principle of religious freedom, expressed in Thomas Jefferson's letters and included in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. However, some states had established religions in some form until the 1830s. [128] In contrast to religion, spirituality has often been associated with the interior life of the individual. [106] The first Sikh Gurdwara in America was built in Stockton, California, in 1912. ), Nonspecific Protestant Family (Mainline Trad. World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction - Ebook written by Jacob Neusner. A number of faith groups have been founded in North America. In 1990, nearly 72% of the population of Utah was Mormon, as well as 26% of neighboring Idaho. Against a prevailing view that eighteenth-century Americans had not perpetuated the first settlers' passionate commitment to their faith, scholars now identify a high level of religious energy in colonies after 1700. Religious freedom is a fundamental principle of American … The three major branches are Religious Science, Unity Church and Divine Science. The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. These include Thomas Paine, James Madison, possibly Alexander Hamilton, and Ethan Allen.[119]. Scientology emerged in the 1950s. Augustine. 86% of American adults identified as Christians in 1990 and 76% in 2008. Christianity is the largest religion in the United States, with the various Protestant Churches having the most adherents. (+1) 202-419-4300 | Main Or about .003% of the U.S. population of 300 million. ), Nonspecific Protestant Family (Evangelical Trad. [82] Jewishness is generally considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one. Beginning in the 16th century, the Spanish (and later the French and English) introduced Catholicism. A 2012 WIN-Gallup International poll showed that 5% of Americans considered themselves "convinced" atheists, which was a fivefold increase from the last time the survey was taken in 2005, and 5% said they did not know or else did not respond. In a 2009 Gallup International survey, 41.6%[211] of American residents stated that they attended a church, synagogue, or mosque once a week or almost every week. Just two would be Mormon, two would be Jewish and one would be Muslim. Some of the first colleges and universities in America, including Harvard,[47] Yale,[48] Princeton,[49] Columbia,[50] Dartmouth,[51] Williams, Bowdoin, Middlebury,[52] and Amherst, all were founded by mainline Protestant denominations. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. Their results found that majority of americans, across faith groups, do hold balanced views on Islam and Muslims, and also highlighted the shared sentiments of Muslim and Jewish communities on many of the questions, and the gaps identified between the Evangelical Christians polled and the other members of the study.[218]. Asian religions have a long and intriguing history in America. Slightly over 50% of Americans report that religion plays a very important role in their lives, a proportion unique among developed countries. America's religious geography has been transformed since 1990. Figures are up from 14.3 million in 1990 to 34.2 million in 2008, representing an increase from 8% of the total population in 1990 to 15% in 2008. From the 19th century to the present, Catholics moved to the US in large numbers due to immigration of Italians, Hispanics, Portuguese, French, Polish, Irish, Highland Scots, Dutch, Flemish, Hungarians, Germans, Lebanese (Maronite), and other ethnic groups. Eastern Orthodoxy was brought to America by Greek, Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and other immigrant groups, mainly from Eastern Europe. Across America, such Indian tribes as The Algonquians, The Iroquois, Sioux, and the Seminoles worshiped the Great Spirit, who could be found in animals as well as inanimate objects. [32] According to a 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public life, 1.7% of adults in the U.S. identify Judaism as their religion. Christians are projected to remain the largest religious group in North America in the decades ahead, and their numbers are expected to increase from 267 million as of 2010 to 287 million in 2050. The 89 percent Christian share of the U.S. population just after World War II meant (treating children as having the same faiths as their parents) that America held about 130 million … A significant number of people identify themselves as American Jewson ethnic and cultural grounds, rather than religious ones. "Mainline Protestantism 2000.". While the absolute number of Christians rose from 1990 to 2008, the percentage of Christians dropped from 86% to 76%. There are, however, small numbers of older (and some recently arrived) communities of Sephardi Jews with roots tracing back to 15th century Iberia (Spain, Portugal, and North Africa). Religion in America Fast Facts Protestant 51.3% Roman Catholic 23.9% Mormon 1.7% Other Christian 1.6% Jewish 1.7% Buddhist 0.7% Muslim 0.6% Other or unspecified 2.5% Unaffiliated 12.1% (link goes to new America’s New Religious Landscape: Three Major Trends The National Decline in White Christian Identity. The challenge to Christianity in the U.S. does not come from other religions but rather from a rejection of all forms of organized religion. Looking at NYC, it is evident that Muslim Americans are engaged and active in important sectors of American life. World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction - Jacob Neusner - 洋書の購入は楽天ブックスで。全品送料無料!購入毎に「楽天ポイント」が貯まってお得!みんなのレビュー・感想も満載。 Small groups of people with slightly different beliefs than the Puritans continued to break away from that church and form their own … America's very first inhabitants have a rich religious history that goes all the way back to prehistoric times, with traditions specific to each tribe. Adjustments were made for those congregations that did not respond and for religious groups that reported only adult membership. 12 Catholic universities are also ranked among the top 100 universities in the US. [224] André Carson is the second Muslim to serve in Congress. Religions in Asian America : Building Faith Communities. In the United States, the influence of religion has extended far beyond home and houses of worship to virtually every facet of American life, from commerce to defense, politics to media, and education to entertainment. The movement had been previously known as the Mental Sciences or the Christian Sciences. Europe gave America not only Christianity but Judaism as well, while the rest of the world contributed its religions, all of which interacted with vibrant, pre-Columbian cultures. When consolidating all Christian denominations into one religious grouping, Judaism is the second-largest religion in the U.S., practiced by 2% of the population, followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam, each with 1% of the population. [108][109], The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.) The first Buddhist temple was established in San Francisco in 1853 by Chinese Americans.The first prominent US citizen to publicly convert to Buddhism was Henry Steel Olcott in 1880 who is still honored in Sri Lanka for these efforts. ), Episcopalian/Anglican Family (Evangelical Trad. However, white evangelicals since 1980 have made up a solidly Republican group that favors conservative candidates. 10 facts about religion in America By Michael Lipka It’s a fascinating time for conversations about faith in the United States, with Pope Francis set to visit next month, a presidential election on the horizon and major trends reshaping the country’s religious landscape . [37] In 2010 there were approximately 180,000 Arab Americans and about 130,000 Iranian Americans who converted from Islam to Christianity. While … According to the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies newsletter published March, 2017, based on data from 2010, Hindus were the largest minority religion in 92 counties out of the 3143 counties in the country. [84], The following is the percentage of Christians and all religions in the U.S. territories as of 2015:[215][216][217], In 2018 The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published an important study that examined the sentiments of various american faith populations on a variety of issues, focused primarily around ideas of violent extremism, religious pluralism and islamophobia. Many other religions are represented in the United States, including Shinto, Caodaism, Thelema, Santería, Kemetism, Religio Romana, Zoroastrianism, Vodou, Pastafarianism, and many forms of New Age spirituality. [111] Taoism was popularized throughout the world through the writings and teachings of Lao Tzu and other Taoists as well as the practice of Qigong, Tai Chi Chuan and other Chinese martial arts. [26] In 2016, 73.7% identified as Christians while 18.2% claimed no religious affiliation.[27]. (Note: "W. About one third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions. Religion in Early America This website is based on an exhibition that was on view at the National Museum of American History from June 28, 2017 to June 3, 2018. That can also be broken down when looking at gender (with Muslim women more likely than Muslim men to experience racial discrimination), age (with young people more likely to report experiencing racial discrimination than older people), and race, (with Arab Muslims the most likely to report experiencing religious discrimination). [27], A 2013 Public Religion Research Institute survey reported that 31% of Americans attend religious services at least weekly.[210]. Pop., 2000 % Change 1990 - 2000; Christianity: 151,225,000: 159,030,000: 76.5% +5%: Nonreligious/Secular Evang." American Muslims are also America's most diverse religious community with 25% identifying as black or African American, 24% identifying as white, 18% identifying as Asian/Chinese/Japanese, 18% identifying as Arab, and 5% identifying as Hispanic. 90% of Muslim Americans identify as straight. Those familiar with Leo Rosten's A Guide to the Religions of America (1955) and his Religions in America (1963) need not be told of the extraordinary reception both volumes received from the reviewers and … The United States has since become a center of the Jain Diaspora. Research indicates that Muslims in the United States are generally more assimilated and prosperous than their counterparts in Europe. This fascinating new book reflects the results of the turmoil and change in the religions of America since Leo Rosten first wrote about them. A group of churches which started in the 1830s in the United States is known under the banner of "New Thought". “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” Washington National CathedralAmong other things, the First Amendment to the Constitution certified, and continues to guarantee, the inalienable rights of all Ameri… The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) of 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. Another antecedent of this movement was Swedenborgianism, founded on the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg in 1787. ), Baptist Family (Historically Black Protestant Trad. If the U.S. contained just 100 adults, 25 would be people who identify with evangelical Protestant denominations, 23 would be religiously unaffiliated and 21 would be Catholic. [88][89] The first Muslim elected to Congress was Keith Ellison in 2006,[90] followed by André Carson in 2008. [65] A nationwide telephone interview of 1,002 adults conducted by The Barna Group found that 70% of American adults believe that God is "the all-powerful, all-knowing creator of the universe who still rules it today", and that 9% of all American adults and 0.5% young adults hold to what the survey defined as a "biblical worldview". Despite these, and as a result of intervening religious strife and preference in England[14] the Plantation Act 1740 would set official policy for new immigrants coming to British America until the American Revolution. The 2001 ARIS study projected from its sample that there are about 5.3 million adults in the American Jewis… The figures, updated to 2014, ranged from 51% in Utah to 17% in Vermont. In 2014 the Pew Research Center's Religious Landscape Study showed 63% of Americans believed in God and were "absolutely certain" in their view, while the figure rose to 89% including those who were agnostic. Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?" ), Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, Other Congregationalist (Evangelical Trad. [72], After Christianity, Judaism is the next largest religious affiliation in the US, though this identification is not necessarily indicative of religious beliefs or practices. March 13, 1911 L. … [65] A nationwide Pew Research study published in 2008 put the figure of unaffiliated persons at 16.1%,[103] while another Pew study published in 2012 was described as placing the proportion at about 20% overall and roughly 33% for the 18–29-year-old demographic. Historically, the United States has always been marked by religious pluralism and diversity, beginning with various native beliefs of the pre-colonial time. Spirituality places an emphasis upon the wellbeing of the "mind-body-spirit,"[127] so holistic activities such as tai chi, reiki, and yoga are common within the SBNR movement. They were the first community to come from India to the US in large numbers. This old text, along with the Prose Edda and Poetic Edda, gives the basis for Norse mythology, stories, legends, and beliefs. [2] Mississippi is the most religious state in the country, with 63% of its adult population described as very religious, saying that religion is important to them and attending religious services almost every week, while New Hampshire, with only 20% of its adult population described as very religious, is the least religious state. Bernie Sanders ran against Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary of 2016. According to the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies newsletter published in March 2017, based on data from 2010, Muslims were the largest minority religion in 392 counties out of the 3143 counties in the country. In North Carolina, 65 percent of adults are highly religious, according to Pew’s index. ", Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States, "The Episcopalians: An American Elite with Roots Going Back to Jamestown", "The Harvard Guide: The Early History of Harvard University", "A Dartmouth History Lesson for Freshman", "Largest Latter-day Saint Communities (Mormon/Church of Jesus Christ Statistics)", "American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008", "Barna Survey Examines Changes in Worldview Among Christians over the Past 13 Years", "The most and least educated U.S. religious group", "How income varies among U.S. religious groups", "While Most Americans Believe in God, Only 36% Attend a Religious Service Once a Month or More Often", "Jewish Population of the United States, 2009", "The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), Year 2000 Report", "Impact Report of Muslim Contributions to New York City", "Islam in America: From African Slaves to Malcolm X", "Jah People: The cultural hybridity of white Rastafarians", The Pioneers, America, "A historical perspective of Americans of Asian Indian origin 1790–1997", Stockton Gurdwara, America, "Stockton California", "Atheists identified as America's most distrusted minority, according to new U of M study", "Pew survey: Doubt of God growing quickly among millennials", "Religious Landscape Study - Pew Research Center", "Pew Survey: Doubt of God Growing Quickly among Millennials", "More Than 9 in 10 Americans Continue to Believe in God", "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S.", "Unitarian Universalists Denounce White Supremacy, Make Leadership Changes", "Unitarian Universalism's Seven Principles", "Unitarian Universalist Origins: Our Historic Faith", Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, "Religious tradition by race/ethnicity (2014)", "Black Americans are more likely than overall public to be Christian, Protestant", "Americans Exaggerate How Much They Go To Religious Services, According To Study", "Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least", NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, "Frequent Church Attendance Highest in Utah, Lowest in Vermont", http://thearda.com/internationalData/countries/Country_5_2.asp, http://thearda.com/internationalData/compare2.asp?c=97, http://thearda.com/internationalData/countries/Country_169_2.asp, http://thearda.com/internationalData/countries/Country_182_2.asp, http://thearda.com/internationalData/countries/Country_240_2.asp, "Table: Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country", "American Muslim Poll 2018: Full Report | ISPU", "Why Bernie Sanders doesn't participate in organized religion", "Some Americans Reluctant to Vote for Mormon, 72-Year-Old Presidential Candidates. Which is your opinion? The survey report stated that the results showed America having a greater similarity to developing nations (where higher percentages say that religion plays an important role) than to other wealthy nations, where religion plays a minor role. For example, 19% of self-identified American Jews do not believe God exists. "[16], Expert researchers and authors have referred to the United States as a "Protestant nation" or "founded on Protestant principles,"[17][18][19][20] specifically emphasizing its Calvinist heritage. Before the coronavirus pandemic, American religiosity had been in steady decline. 2001 Est. The following statements were posed to participants and they were asked to answer on a scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. 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Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. [139] The New Thought concept was named by Emma Curtis Hopkins ("teacher of teachers") after Hopkins broke off from Mary Baker Eddy's Church of Christ, Scientist. The following graph shows data across six different faith populations in the United States, and their answers to the two questions below ("W. Their political speeches show distinct deistic influence. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 10:06. Evang." The United States federal government was the first national government to have no official state-endorsed religion. Asian religions have a long and intriguing history in America. Religious Diversity in British America - 1730s-1790 Part V. American Religions … 119 ] 17 % in religion. [ 132 ] Jewson ethnic cultural... Was 113,723 ; 2001 sample size was 113,723 ; 2001 sample size was 113,723 ; 2001 sample size was ;... People identify themselves as spiritual but not religious. [ 130 ] actively practice religion. 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[ 154 ] important role in lives... Hill, Samuel S., Charles H. Lippy, and Judaism and Hinduism! The governor of the lack of attachment of Americans report that religion plays very! Data collected by ispu during their 2018 poll has been present since the Russian colonization of Alaska their...., demographic research, media content analysis and other immigrant groups, mainly Eastern! Asked this question Democratic before the 1970s, while 7 % said no and 1 % of the best religious... Universities are also ranked among the most significant time of Jain immigration was in the century. Religions from around the world, was founded in North America Christians dropped 86... Partner was also asked Ethan Allen. [ 154 ] splitting from the diversity of its faith traditions of adults... For the Hindu American Foundation, an advocacy organization for the Hindu American Foundation—a national institution protecting rights of best...